March 28, 2023

Banana agrotechnics

Banana agrotechnics . To achieve healthy, well-developed plants; As well as high yields in the cultivation of plantain, an adequate agrotechnics of the crop must be established, where the following are taken into account, among other important factors: selection of the area, soil preparation, planting and cultivation tasks.


  • Introduction
  • Selection of the production area
  • Soil preparation
    • 3.1 Leveling
    • 3.2 Application of Organic Matter
  • Plantation
  • Cultivation work
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  • sources


Plantains and bananas are , without a doubt, one of the fundamental sources of carbohydrates in the Cuban diet. This crop has the advantage that it can be in production throughout the year and therefore has enormous importance in any self-sufficiency program. In order to achieve well-developed, healthy and high-yielding plantain and banana plantations, an adequate crop agrotechnics must be established , where the following factors are fundamentally taken into account: selection of the area, soil preparation , planting and cultivation work.

Selection of the production area

Banana cultivation can be attacked by nematodes and bacteria found in the soil , which is why it is essential to carry out previous studies of nematode fauna and bacteriology. Crops need certain amounts of nutritional elements for their growth and development, these are usually called macroelements and microelements. This denomination does not refer to its size or to the amounts of these elements that plants need to grow and develop, but to the important functions that they perform in them. Among these elements present in the soilSynergism and antagonism reactions are produced, for which it is considered necessary to carry out agrochemical studies to determine which fertilizer to apply. It is also important to determine the soil reaction (PH) and its organic matter content .

soil preparation

Between the start of soil preparation and planting, there should be 60 to 90 days , which allows a good decomposition of plant residues that are not the object of cultivation and of previous harvests . It also reduces nematode populations, because by cutting and inverting the prism of the soil , these microorganisms are exposed to the action of the sun and other natural agents. The number of cultivation tasksit depends on the type of soil, the preceding crop and the predominant spontaneous vegetation; The lighter the soil and the less populated by non-cultivated plants, the less work should be done on it. Remember that the best preparation of the soil is not the one that performs the most work, but the one that achieves the greatest depth and the adequate structure of the soil with the minimum of work. The useful life of the plantation depends largely on the initial preparation of the soil. The most appropriate soils for growing bananas are deep, loose, rich in organic matter , fertile, with good drainage and a neutral PH (6.5), although they tolerate slightly acidic and alkaline soils. plantain rootsin these types of soils they can reach between 5-10 m in length when there are no limiting factors. Between 60-80% of the roots are 0-60 cm deep; Despite this peculiarity, the development of a plant is poor in shallow and especially compacted soils with poor drainage , since the root system of these plants is so weak that they are unable to penetrate the compact soil. For this reason, the tasks of: leveling , subsoiling and the use of organic fertilizers are fundamental in the preparation of the soil .


It guarantees greater efficiency for the use of irrigation systems . When there are large unevenness, it is possible to use topsoil fill and if the unevenness is small, the Land plane must be used. In addition, soils with poor internal drainage need to project the drainage of the fields to ensure a rapid outflow of water in rainy periods.

Organic matter application


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One of the main causes of soil deterioration is the depletion of minerals , so the use of organic matter is a significant factor in maintaining their productivity, since it contributes to their nutritional enrichment and the conservation of their topsoil. The application of filter cake and ash (by-products of sugar production) can replace up to 75% of mineral fertilizers.


Planting is the most important operation, because the vegetative cycle of the crop and the yields to be obtained will depend on its quality. The “sowing” of the banana crop can be carried out throughout the year, although it is preferable to do it in the spring time of March – August for red soils and other well-drained soils; while for heavy or poorly drained soils when irrigation is guaranteed, the best time for planting is between the months of November – April . For all types of soil, the “sowing” is established in a flat furrow. Currently, the production of banana fruit in our country is based on FHIA-type clones due to their resistance toBlack Sigatoka , ‘FHIA – 18’ is the one with the greatest extension with a high productive potential. It is recommended to use vitroplants or material from pregerminators and nurseries. Vitroplants allow rapid multiplication; have plants free of insects, nematodes, fungi, viruses and bacteria; in addition, achieve increases in yields of more than 20%.

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Pre-germinators and nurseries constitute another way of obtaining “seeds”, but the following requirements must be met: when extracting the seeds, they must be peeled (a technique used as a preventive measure for weevil and nematode infections ), the benefit and the destruction of waste. After peeling, a chemical or thermal treatment must be carried out with exposure time to the latter depending on the type of caliber (A and B from 20 to 25 seconds and C from 10 to 12 seconds, when the water is boiling) and not place directly on the ground in less than 24 hours (avoids the loss of its germinative power). Lastly, the period between extraction and planting cannot exceed 72 hours and the propagule must not be exposed to the sun .because the budding capacity of the buds is affected.

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The planting distance is an important factor and is highly determined by the size of the clones and their characteristics, the irrigation system, the type of harvest (mechanized or by cable), the possibilities of pest control and non-cultivated plants , the intensive cultivation , duration of the plantation, purpose of the plantation, fertilization and harvest, number of suckers per plant, soil fertility and desired production. All this contributes to achieving an optimal population.

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The furrowing must be carried out at a depth of 45 – 50 cm, for which the inviolable requirements are to fracture and loosen the soil well and to cross-mark, which guarantees uniformity in the distance between the noses (distance between plants). For poorly drained soils, the use of beds should be established. If this characteristic depends on the shallow depth and the presence of salinity or both, it is recommended to use the method of terraces with a 2 m plate, 50 – 60 cm high and planting with double furrows. The integral drainage system of the area must be completed before planting.

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Cultivation work

The management of the banana plantation consists of the selection of the follower and the elimination of the undesirable offspring or suckers (de-suckering). The same will be done when the follower or crown of children reach 1 m in height on average. This operation is carried out with multiple objectives and one of them is precisely to increase yields. The control of non-target plants (weeding) in banana is of great importance throughout the cultivation stage, although it is essential to keep the field free of these during the first 6 – 7 months after planting, because, fundamentally in this period, affectations of 25 – 75% of the total yield can be produced. There are different methods such as: chemical control withherbicides , mechanical control with tillage instruments and equipment, and dead plant cover.

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Leaf stripping is carried out as a phytosanitary control measure and consists of cutting leavesdead or with too much infection rate due to the damage caused by Sigatoka. This work allows the plant to strengthen the physiological processes to increase the productive capacity and helps to accelerate the improvement of the physical and chemical properties of the soil by incorporating a greater amount of organic matter. Avoid cutting leaves that are green (active leaves), as these contribute to the nutrition of the plant. In the case of clones susceptible to black Sigatoka, the defoliation will be carried out partially, that is, eliminate only the affected parts. There are other tasks that are carried out in the cultivation of bananas after the outbreak of the bunch; These include: the shoring and mooring of the cluster,root system , as a result of nematode attack or the application of inappropriate management practices, in case of severe desuckering. Finally, there is also the elimination of the pampana, known as despampanado, which allows an increase in yields between 2 – 5%.